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THE ETHNOBOTANY OF CHAYA (CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS): A NUTRITIOUS MAYA VEGETABLE
Research: Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey (Department of Genetics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602) and Alvaro Molina-Cruz (Departamentod e Bioqufmica), Institutod e Investigaciones, Universidad del Valle de Guatemal  
Article: New York Botanical Garden Press  Vol. 56, No. 4 (Winter, 2002), pp. 350-365
https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/32653840/Springer.pdf

RESEARCH ABOUT PHYTOCHEMICAL CONTENT
DR. DUKE'S PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ETHNOBOTANICAL DATABASES (LIST OF CHEMICALS IN CHAYA)
http://sun.ars-grin.gov:8080/npgspub/xsql/duke/plantdisp.xsql?taxon=287

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF LEAF EXTRACT OF CNIDOSCOLUS CHAYAMANSA MCVAUGH
Research: Periyar Maniammai University, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India
Article: International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2014-15; 6(4); 741-745
https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/32653840/IJPPR%2CVol6%2CIssue4%2CArticle10%20%281%29.pdf
"In our previous study, we have proved that the anti oxidant, antidiabetic activity is associated with the active constituents of Cnidoscolus chayamansa. The present study also provides the evidence that ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus chayamansa contains medicinally important bioactive compounds and this justifies the use of plant species as traditional medicine for treatment of various diseases."
PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS, ANTIMICROBAL AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIALS OF TREE SPINACH
Research: Department of Chemistry, University of Abuja, Nigeria
Article: Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 7(19), pp. 1317-1322, 
https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/32653840/article1380722275_Adeniran%20et%20al.pdf

"This study revealed the ability of C. aconitifolius to inhibit both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria; thereby suggesting that it could serve as a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent and paving way for further investigation to identify the active compounds responsible for the plant biological activity with the required MIC for use in drug development for safe health care delivery. It was also shown that there is increase in antioxidant activity of the extract with concentration; this can serve as a guide to search for compounds with antioxidant activity. Thus, identification of the chemical constituents responsible for the antioxidant activities of the plant species may lead to the development of new excellent alternative natural antioxidant."

PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND PROXIMATE ANALYSIS ON THE LEAVES OF CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS.
Research: Department of Veterinary Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan
Article: The National Center for Biotechnology Information  -  US National Library of Medicine
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21182430

“The leaves of C. aconitifolius have high nutrient potentials and could be used as nutraceuticals in complementary foods.”

PHYTOCHEMICAL CONTENT OF CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS LEAVES AND TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECT OF ITSAQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT.
Research: J Invest Biochem. 2014 
Article: Journal of Investigational Biochemistry
http://www.scopemed.org/?mno=40642

Conclusion - The results suggested that the aqueous leaf extract of C. aconitifolius had low toxicity at the concentrations investigated.

RESEARCH ABOUT ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC EFFECT

EFFECT OF CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS LEAF EXTRACT ON THE BLOOD GLUCOSE AND INSULIN LEVELS OF INBRED TYPE 2 DIABETIC MICE.
Reseach: Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, School of Public Health, Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD 21251, USA.
Article: Europe Pubmed Central
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/17531147

“For moderately diabetic mice, CA and chlorpropamide decreased the glucose levels by 25.6% and 16.3% respectively while for the severely diabetic mice, CA decreased the blood glucose by 43.7%. It is proposed that CA has an insulinogenic property that possibly stimulated dormant beta-cells to secrete insulin. The histopathology of several organs in the treated animals was found to differ from the expected. The islets of Langerhans for example were found to be preserved in the time frame examined. Also the liver and kidney were found to display milder pathology in the treated groups.”

ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF CNIDOSCOLUS CHAYAMANSA IN EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON KEY METABOLIC ENZYMES INVOLVED IN CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM
Reseach: Department of Biotechnology, Periyar Maniammai University,Vallam,Thanjavur.Tamil Nadu, India. Joint Director of Medical Education (Pharmacy) Directorate of Medical Education, Kilpauk, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Article: International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry
http://www.ijrpc.com/files/v2i1%20(25).pdf

“In conclusion, the extract of C. Chayamansa at high dose and low dose exhibited significant anti-hyperglemic activity in normal and alloxan-diabetic rats. This extract also showed improvement in the parameters like body weight, liver glycogen content and carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes as well as regeneration of B-cells of pancreas and so might be of value in diabetes treatment.”

ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL OF THE AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS ON STREPTOZOTOCIN (STZ) INDUCED DIABETES IN WISTAR RAT HEPATOCYTES.
Reseach: Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka.
Article: Current Research Journal of Biological Science 4(2): 164-167, 2012  ISSN: 2041-0778 © Maxwell Scientific Organizational, 2012
http://maxwellsci.com/print/crjbs/v4-164-167.pdf

“Nowadays frequency of diabetes mellitus isincreasing many folds. Research findings show that it is the body composition components, mainly body fat and lipid profiles that are responsible for increase prevalence of  this disease. This study verifies the fact that consumption of aqueous extract of leaves of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius has hypoglycaemic effect. Results obtain showed that aqueous extract of leaves of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius could be speculated as an effective adjunct in the management of diabetes mellitus, but the mechanism by which it decreases glucose level should be subsequently investigated and the principle characterized.”

ANTIDIABETIC PROPERTIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETES MELLITUS IN RATS.
Research: Department of Veterinary Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan. 
Article: The National Center for Biotechnology Information  -  US National Library of Medicine
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22416660

“From this study, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract was found to considerably reduce blood glucose and plasma cholesterol levels and progressively increase weight gain in diabetic treated rats confirming its traditional use for the treatment of diabetes.”

PROGRESS IN NEW CROPS: POTENTIAL NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH BENEFITS OF TREE SPINACH*
Reserch: Joseph O. Kuti and Eliseo S. Torres
Article: ASHS Press, Arlington, VA  
http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1996/V3-516.html

“The results obtained in this study suggest that in STZ-induced diabetic rabbits, aqueous leaf extracts of C. chayamansa may be effective for treatment of non-insulin dependent diabete mellitus (NIDDM) symptomatology. This is a first report on hypoglycemic effect of chaya plants.” 

“Although demand for chaya, as a medicinal plant, has recently increased among the Hispanic population in the United States, the plant has the potential to make a significant nuritional contribution to the vegetable diet as well, because of its high nutrient content. The development of chaya as a new horticultural crop would transcend the ethnic popularity and create a worldwide market for the plant and its products, whether as a leafy green vegetable and/or as a therapeutic herbal tea.”


RESEARCH ABOUT CARDIOPROTECTIVE POTENTIAL

HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF CNIDOSCOLUS CHAYAMANSA
Research: Department of Biotechnology, Periyar Maniammai University, Vallam, THANJAVUR (T.N.) INDIA
Article: Acta Chim. Pharm. Indica: 2(1), 2012, 24-31 ISSN 2277-288X
https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/32653840/HYPOLIPIDEMIC%20ACTIVITY.pdf

"Ethanol extract showed significant hypolipidemic effect by lowering the serum levels of biochemical parameters such as significant reduction in the level of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL and increase in HDL level which was similar to the standard drug Atorvastatin. Ethanol extract exhibited significant atherogenic index and percentage protection against hyperlipidemia. These biochemical observations were in turn confirmed by histopathological examinations of aorta, sections and are comparable with the standard hypolipidemic drug Atorvastatin. The overall experimental results suggests that the biologically active phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids present in the ethanol extract of Cnidoscolus chayamansa may be responsible for the significant hypolipidemic activity and the results justify the use of Cnidoscolus chayamansa as a significant Hypolipidemic agent."

"Again, the administration of Ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus Chayamansa significantly suppress the higher values of LDL-C/HDL-C ratio showing the beneficial effect of this plant in preventing atherosclerosis incidence. This result is considered important for the treatment of hyperlipidemia induced atherosclerosis and apparently validates the folk medicinal use of hyperlipidemic patients in India. Another interesting feature is that the Histopathological abnormalities seen in the aorta of cholesterol control rats are also reversed showing almost normal appearance. On the basis of above results, it could be concluded that Ethanolic extracts of Cnidoscolus Chayamansa is a significant antihyperlipidemic effect."

HYPOCHOLESTEROLEMIC ACTIVITY FROM THE LEAF EXTRACTS OF CNIDOSCOLUS CHAYAMANSA.
Research: Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon Mexico
Article: The National Center for Biotechnology Information  -  US National Library of Medicine

"The aqueous extract (at either doses employed) showed a significant cholesterol reduction (27.9 and 31.1%, for 50 and 100 mg kg(-1), respectively P<0.01). The extract did not inhibit the HMG-CoA reductase enzyme, suggesting that its compounds act at another level in cholesterol metabolism."

"Our data suggests that the Mexican plant tested has important hypocholesterolemic properties and merits further studies on the clinical applications of these plant extracts."

CNIDOSCOLUS CHAYAMANSA, AN IMPORTANT ANTIOXIDANT, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND CARDIOPROTECTIVE PLANT USED IN MEXICO.
Research: Instituto de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz, Mexico.
Article: The National Center for Biotechnology Information  -  US National Library of Medicine
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24333962

“All these results are relevant for a better understanding of the therapeutic used of Cnidoscolus chayamansa in the Mexican traditional medicine and highlights its cardioprotective potential.”


RESEARCH ABOUT ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY

ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CNIDOSCOLUS CHAYAMANSA AGAINST DALTON’S ASCITIC LYMPHOMA IN MICE.
Reseach: Department of Biotechnology, Periyar Maniammai University,Vallam,Thanjavur.Tamil Nadu, India
Article: International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
ISSN- 0975-1491 Vol 4, Suppl 4, 2012
http://www.ijppsjournal.com/Vol4Suppl4/4737.pdf

“Plants of C.chayamansa were traditionally used in the treatment of tumors. (Graham JG, Quinn M.L, Fabricant DS, Farnsworth NR. Plants used against cancer-an extension of the work of Jonathan Hartwell. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.2000; 73:347-377.)”

“The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the antitumor activity of Ethanolic extracts of C.chayamansa in DLA tumor bearing mice. The EECC treated animals at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the tumor volume, packed cell volume, tumor (viable) cell count and brought back the hematological parameters to more or less normal levels

In the present study, the biochemical examination of DLA inoculated animals showed marked changes indicating the toxic effect of the tumor. The normalization of these effects observed in the serum treated with EECC possesses significant antitumor and hepatoprotective effect of the extracts.”

AN INVITRO CYTOTOXICITY STUDY OF CNIDOSCOLUS CHAYAMANSA ON SELECTED CELL LINES.
Research: Periyar Maniammai University & K.M. College of Pharmacy, Tamil Nadu, India & Jaya College of Pharmacy, Thiruninravur, Chennai, India
Article: World journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences  SJIF Impact Factor 2.786   Volume 3, Issue 8, 1110-1116. Research Article ISSN 2278 – 4357
file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/article_wjpps_1406874991%20(1).pdf

“The present study concluded that the EECC has shown a remarkable anticancer activity against the experimental HT-29 (Colon carcinoma) cells. This holds great promise for future research in human beings. The anticancer properties of Cnidoscolus chayamansa will provide useful information in the possible application in the treatment of neoplastic therapy and prevention.”


RESEARCH ABOUT HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECTS

HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND NEPHROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS IN PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION INDUCED LIVER AND KIDNEY DAMAGE.
Research: Department of Veterinary Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Oyo State, Nigeria ; Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
Article: The National Center for Biotechnology Information  -  US National Library of Medicine
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24174819

C. aconitifolius in protein deficient diets has a protective role against hepatic injury and renal damage associated with PEM.

CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS LEAF EXTRACT PROTECTS AGAINST HEPATIC DAMAGE INDUCED BY CHRONIC ETHANOL ADMINISTRATION IN WISTAR RATS.
Research: Drug Metabolism and Toxicology Research Laboratories, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Ibadan
Article: The National Center for Biotechnology Information  -  US National Library of Medicine
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21616948

Supplementation with CA significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the activities of liver marker enzymes, stabilized the lipid profiles and restored the antioxidants status of ethanol-treated rats. The activities of CA were comparable with KV in the ethanol-treated rats. This observation was supported by histopathological examination of liver slides.

These findings suggest the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of CA leaf extract, which offered protection against ethanol-induced toxicity.

HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS ON PARACETAMOL-INDUCED HEPATIC DAMAGE IN RATS.
Research: Department of Veterinary Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
Article: The National Center for Biotechnology Information  -  US National Library of Medicine
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20437682

In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrated that Cnidoscolus aconitifolius can significantly ameliorate paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity.”

METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS ATTENUATES RENAL DYSFUNCTION INDUCED BY CHRONIC ETHANOL ADMINISTRATION IN WISTAR RATS.
Research: Drug Metabolism and Toxicology Research Laboratories, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Article: The National Center for Biotechnology Information  -  US National Library of Medicine
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21134988

“The results suggest that the renal protective effect of C. aconitifolius leaf extract is by attenuating oxidative stress induced by chronic ethanol administration.”




RESEARCH ABOUT ANTI-INFLAMATORY PROPERTIES

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC PROPERTIES OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS IN RATS AND MICE.
Research: Department of Physiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Article: The National Center for Biotechnology Information  -  US National Library of Medicine
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22865362

“Our investigations show that C. aconitifolius possesses significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities that should be explored.”